In the present study, the authors examined the impact of financial sanctions on economic growth using Iran's data and intervention time-series analysis over the period 2005-2017. Financial ...
In the present study, the authors examined the impact of financial sanctions on economic growth using Iran's data and intervention time-series analysis over the period 2005-2017. Financial sanctions targeted the country's financial resources and increased interest rates and medium- and long-term financing costs. In general, financial sanctions adversely affected the financial sector. In this regard, blocking of assets and restricted access to financial and foreign exchange resources, depreciated domestic currency, reduced investment, exports, and production along with increased inflation and unemployment ultimately reduced economic growth. The results indicated the effectiveness of financial sanctions on economic growth in the short-run. However, during the third period (2010-2014), when severe and multilateral financial sanctions are imposed, the coefficient is negative (0.54), which is higher, compared to the other periods. As the economic sanctions of Iran have intensified, the economic growth has slowed down. Nevertheless, in the long run, financial sanctions have had a weaker negative effect of 0.19 on the economic growth. JEL Classification: F51، O 47، O 53
High degree of interest sensitivity of durable goods is now a stylized fact in the literature of monetary policy. This literature, however, does not provide a clear and consensual explanation ...
High degree of interest sensitivity of durable goods is now a stylized fact in the literature of monetary policy. This literature, however, does not provide a clear and consensual explanation for the modalities of this stylized fact. In this paper, two independent empirical models are performed to shed more light on the cross-sectoral impacts of monetary policy. The results of first study indicate that there is no straightforward qualitative relationship between the degree of durability and the interest-sensitivity of durables. While, the second study shows that, in response to monetary policy shocks, productive durables behave differently from consumer durables. For both studies, two models have been estimated using the quarterly data of the U.S. over the period 1954:III – 2007:II JEL Classification: E52, L68.
Energy has been the main pillar of the global growth and development. Amongst various sources of energy, oil has the largest share in the global energy consumption. As these energy ...
Energy has been the main pillar of the global growth and development. Amongst various sources of energy, oil has the largest share in the global energy consumption. As these energy reserves tend to decline, few regions, most notably the Middle East which has been at the forefront with the largest reserves, can fulfill the rising global energy demand. Even then, in view of its vast energy potential, this region has attracted the attention of the growing economies of the world. This paper intends to look at one of the significant producers in the Persian Gulf energy market, Iran, and its energy relations with the Asian giant, China, from the International Relations perspective. Having a wide variety of capacities, Iran-China relations in recent years has made special dynamics, so that in different fields, this relationship has been steadily expanding and deepening. One of the most important capacity building areas in Iran-China relations is energy. The area of energy certainly has played the most important role in the dynamics of these relationships. Potential opportunities of bilateral cooperation between Iran and China in the field of energy are wide, and in case of realization it can have positive consequences of the political and security. The aim of this paper is to cover the current oil trade situation between the two countries as well as the existing problems that are limiting the growth of this relation such as international sanctions and at the end some suggestions in order to enlarge the trade between the two countries. In conclusion, we can say that a massive capacity on the basis of "energy" in relations between Iran and China have emerged that can be used to promote economic relations between the two countries in the framework of a comprehensive strategy that benefits both countries and the region. This Capacity must be accompanied with "mutual desire” to take place. Especially noteworthy is that the existing capacities should not only be considered as "energy economy" and cooperation in the field of energy, but also should be seen as the overall framework of "security" and "Asian solidarity”. JEL Classification: F14, F18
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of monetary regime (countries with inflation targeting monetary policy versus countries with exchange rate anchor) on ...
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of monetary regime (countries with inflation targeting monetary policy versus countries with exchange rate anchor) on the extent of exchange rate pass-through over the period of 1999-2010. To achieve this objective, the econometric model has been estimated by Dynamic Panel Data approach and Arrelano- Bond (AB) method. The empirical findings indicate that the interaction effect of monetary regime with exchange rate has a negative and positive impact on the exchange rate pass-through in first and second groups of countries respectively. However, the cross effect of inflationary environment with nominal effective exchange rate has negative and significant effect on domestic price level in the both groups of countries. Hence, overall, the Taylor hypothesis has been confirmed.
JEL Classification: C23, F14, F31
Assumption of exchange rate overshooting has significant position in international macroeconomic discussion. This phenomenon is one of the abnormal behaviors of exchange rate that happen ...
Assumption of exchange rate overshooting has significant position in international macroeconomic discussion. This phenomenon is one of the abnormal behaviors of exchange rate that happen in short run. Dornbusch (1976) shows that because speed of equilibrium prices is slow relative to asset markets and commodity prices are sticky in the short run, However, over time, commodity prices will rise and result in a decrease in real money supply and thus, in a higher interest rate. This, in turn, will cause the currency to appreciate.
The aim of this article is study of exchange rate overshooting for period 1380:1-1387:12 by Vector Error Correction approach. Results show that monetary relative shock in long run and short run also effect exchange rate that imply exchange rate overshooting in Iran.
Consumption is the principal feature of Iranâs Gross National Production. Therefore, recognizing of factors that influence it is quite crucial. This article, investigates ...
Consumption is the principal feature of Iranâs Gross National Production. Therefore, recognizing of factors that influence it is quite crucial. This article, investigates habit formation, durability, relative risk aversion and intertemporal substitution in consumption expenditures of Iranian households. For empirical study, at first, we constructed two weighted portfolio of the main assets return that households hold them. Then, by using generalized method of moments, we examined some models with the mentioned factors in pattern of householdsâ consumption for 1979-2012 periods. Our Empirical findings indicated that for durable goods, the effect of habit persistence dominated the effect of durability in consumption expenditures and for semi durable goods vice versa. Also, for semi-durable and durable goods the effect of durability dominated the effect of habit formation. Furthermore, the results indicate that coefficients of relative risk aversion and elasticity of intertemporal substitution are between 0.25 to 0.95 and 1.05 to 4, respectively. Â Â JEL Classification: C26, D91, G11
Numerous models are proposed to model international trade and promote it. Vanek, instead of designing a trade pattern based on the production, introduced a pattern based on the factor ...
Numerous models are proposed to model international trade and promote it. Vanek, instead of designing a trade pattern based on the production, introduced a pattern based on the factor content of trade. In the present study, apart from the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek (HOV) theorem, we attempt to determine the factor content of Iran's trade without factor price equalization by using internal input-output tables. Net trading is positive only for 7 sectors of Iran's economy, including oil and gas. It is negative for 91 percent of sectors that accounts for 78 percent of the economy. Moreover, Iran's factor content of trade is positive for 50 percent of industries, negative for 48%, and it is zero for two ones. In general, the factor content of trade for raw and mineral materials, services, electricity, gas and water infrastructure sectors are positive. In contrast, the factor content of trade is negative for activities like manufacturing of machinery and equipment and in general for sections that require intermediate, investment, and high-tech goods. Sign and rank tests are employed to assess the validity of HOV theorem. The sign test was found to be satisfied for 67% of cases. Rank test showed satisfaction in about 47% of the cases.
JLE Classification: Y10: P45: O53: F14